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What size should a lexicon be ?

The standard does not impose constraints on the size of the lexicon. The number of cells is dependent on the language and the analysis. The number of lexemes is dependent on the language, part of speech, and available documentation. The number of forms in the end is roughly the product of the number of cells and lexemes (though overabundance, defective, and other variations can have an impact on this). The more lexemes documented the better. In less documented languages, it might be useful to create a lexicon with less than 100 lexemes, or a few hundred. In well-documented languages, one might aim for a few thousand. Above this, it is useful to use frequency information to filter out or annotate very rare lexemes.

Is it necessary to include all the information described in the standard?

Minimally, a valid paralex lexicon includes a forms table with just a few columns: form_id, lexeme, cell, and either phon_form or orth_form; as well as a .package.json metadata file. Adding tables for sounds, cells and feature-values is highly recommended in order to make the conventions used in the forms table explicit.

Furthermore, the standard provides optional ways to encode much richer lexicons (accounting for variation, overabundance, defectivity, frequency information, inflection classes, etc.).

How should one choose a license ?

In choosing licenses, be very careful of respecting existing licenses of material used, and to respect the CARE principles where relevant. When possible, we recommend the usage of open licenses. Some tools exist to help choose a specific license, for example choose a license . com, or the Creative commons license chooser.

Is it necessary to write python code to use the standard ?

To follow this standard, a dataset only needs to use frictionless metadata (the package.json file), fit the obligations in the standard and use the specifications. One could perfectly well use other tools and programming languages to do this, relying on the default paralex.package.json which defines the standard specifications.

Writing the metadata json file by hand is not a good solution: it is very boring, not a very human friendly format, and very easy to make mistakes. Thus, we provide a python package to help out.

We understand that not all dataset creators have someone in their team with the relevant expertise to make use of the python package. However, at the end of projects, it is common to contract web developers to create a showcase site for the dataset. Our suggestion is to use some of this budget to hire someone to do the (very little) coding, validation, and writing of tests for the data.

What is a word ?

Rows of the forms table document word forms. But what is a word ? Do clitic pronouns, pre-verbs, converbs, etc. belong in the paradigm ? Again, this is a matter of analysis, and different choices might be valid for a same set of data. Dataset authors are responsible for these analytic choices, and should document them explicitly.

If choosing an extensive approach (eg. including material which other analyses might separate from the word), we recommend making use of the segmented_orth_form and segmented_phon_form or custom columns to mark the boundaries, making it possible for data users to filter them out as needed.

How is this different from Unimorph ?

Paralex lexicons aim to fill a need for more flexible and precise annotation of morphological systems. While we recommend to also provide morphological cells using the UNIMORPH schema, many linguistic analyses, whether synchronic or diachronic, quantitative or qualitative, benefit from also expressing these in other annotation scheme, such as Universal Dependency, or language-specific tags. UNIMORPH lexicons provide orthographic inflected forms, which is crucial for any applications which make use of corpora. However, we find that for linguistic purposes, a phonemic or phonetic representation is also important. Furthermore, we provide conventions to add rich, linguistically relevant information such as variation (see the tags table), frequency information, glosses (see the lexeme table), comments or alternate notations at any level (forms, cells, features, lexemes, frequency, tags) and more. In order to improve the FAIRness and CAREness of datasets, Paralex lexicons add rich frictionless metadata and custom data sheets.

UNIMORPH lexicons can often serve as the basis for Paralex lexicons, with the main processing step being to transcribe the orthographic forms into some phonemic or phonetic notation; and to carefully add linguistically relevant information. In the other direction, Paralex lexicons, if they provide an equivalent for each cell in the UNIMORPH schema, can easily be exported into valid UNIMORPH lexicons.

The Paralex standard owes a lot to CLDF: it is our attempt to apply to inflectional lexicons the data practices disseminated by the Cross-Linguistic Linked Data project (CLLD). Although the type of datasets, the analyses which can be made of them, and the details of the standard are distinct, Paralex follows the same design principles. Like CLDF datasets, Paralex lexicons are constituted of relational databases written as sets of csv files, and accompanied by metadata in json format. Both also refer (and delegate meaning) to other vocabularies such as Glottolog, CLTS, etc.