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Express sounds

The sounds table documents the set of sounds used in transcription (the phon_form column of the forms table). Although it is best to use common conventions, it is often impossible to avoid language specific analytic choices in the sound inventory.

We suggest using valid BIPA (see CLTS) sounds, providing references to CLTS's BIPA or to PHOIBLE.

How to manage ambiguous notations ?

There are a variety of situations which lead to ambiguous notations, e.g. where one has a symbol "R" which might stand for either the sound "r" or "ɹ". Whenever possible, we recommend avoiding ambiguous sounds, as they reduce the compatibility with other transcription systems. When using an ambiguous symbol is the only reasonable choice, it is crucial to document precisely their meaning and avoid confusions.

Here are some specific cases:

Real variation (either free or conditionned)

If the intended meaning of "R" is that some speakers would pronounce "r" and some "ɹ", the recommended solution is to use both of these more precise, concrete sounds, provide distinct rows in the forms table with each, and tag them using a variant tag. A possible, but less satisfactory alternative is to consistently pick a single one (eg "r"), and ignore the variation.

Imprecise transcription

Sometimes, the data source gives an imprecise transcription, e.g. "R", but it is unclear whether "r" or "ɹ" are meant. This includes cases of reconstruction which are intentionally vague, uncertainties in field work data, or ambiguous data points where other forms do contain the precise symbol. In this case, keeping the imprecise symbol "R" is best. It might be difficult, then, to link it properly to other databases. The label and comment columns should clarify the meaning of the ambiguous symbol. If using distinctive features, usage of underspecified features (leaving some cells empty) may help in expressing the semantics of the symbol.

Uninterpretable source

Sometimes, the data source gives a symbol, which was originally intended as precise, but one can not figure out which phoneme was meant. E.g. did "j" in a specific source mean IPA [y]" or [j] ? Ideally, it is better to use a clearer source. But if it is impossible, then the best is to keep the original symbol (again, use the name and comment columns should clarify the situation). Indeed, interpreting as either "[y]" or "[j]" when unsure would add a layer of obscuration.